Parasuraman, A

Federated Professor of Marketing, College of Business Administration, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Research Interests: Service marketing, research methodology, sales management

Published Papers: JM 8, JMR 4, JR 5, JAR 1, others 56.


A multiple item instrument called SERVQUAL for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality was developed in the study. First, The construct of service quality was defined and operationalized. Service quality is difficult to evaluate for the characteristics of services. Perceived quality is the consumerís judgment about an entityís overall excellence or superiority. It differs from objective quality, is a form of attitude, related but not equivalent to satisfaction, and results from a comparison of expectations with perceptions of performance. Based on gap model of service quality, the author operationalized service quality in ten dimensions and 97 items.

Then the scale was empirically tested. In the exploratory analysis, data was collected from five different service categories. The scale was purified based on coefficient alpha and item-to-total correlations. Factor analysis was applied to examine the dimensionality of the scale. As a result, five dimensions were generated. In the confirmatory analysis, The scale was refined, reliability and validity of the measurement were discussed.

This study provided a multiple-item scale to measure service quality. It is a useful tool to track service quality trends, assess a given firmís quality, determine the relative importance of the five dimensions in influencing customers?overall quality perceptions, and categorizing a firmís customers into several perceived-quality segment. It also has managerial implications for service organizations.


Voss, Glenn B.; A Parasuraman; Dhruv Grewal (1998), "The Roles of Price, Performance, and Expectations in Determining Satisfaction in Service Exchanges." Journal of Marketing 62(Oct), 4, 46-61.

Zinn, Walter; A Parasuraman (1997), "Scope and Intensity of Logistics-based Strategic Alliances: A Conceptual Classification And Managerial Implications," Industrial Marketing Management, 26(Mar), 2, 137-147.

Berry, Leonard L; A Parasuraman (1997), "Listening to the Customer -the Concept of A Service-quality Information System," Sloan Management Review, 38(Spring), 3, 65-76.

Parasuraman, A (1997), "Reflections on Gaining Competitive Advantage Through Customer Value," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(Spring), 2, 154-161.

Zeithaml, Valarie A.; Leonard L Berry; A Parasuraman (1996), "The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality," Journal of Marketing. 60(Apr), 2, 31-46.

Baker, Julie; Dhruv Grewal; A Parasuraman (1995), "The Effect of Store Atmosphere On Customer Quality Perceptions and Store Image," Stores, 77(Jul), 7, RR5.

Parasuraman, A.; Valarie A Zeithaml.; Leonard L Berry (1994), "Alternative Scales For Measuring Service Quality: A Comparative Assessment Based on Psychometric And Diagnostic Criteria," Journal of Retailing, 70(Fal), 3, 201-230.

Baker, Julie; Dhruv Grewal; A Parasuraman (1994), "The Influence of Store Environment on Quality Inferences And Store Image," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(Fall), 4, 328-339.

Berry, Leonard L; A Parasuraman; Valarie A Zeithaml; Dennis Adsit; et-al (1994), "Improving Service Quality in America: Lessons Learned; Executive Commentary," Academy of Management Executive. 8(May), 2, 32-52.

Parasuraman, A; Valarie A Zeithaml; Leonard L Berry (1994), "Reassessment of Expectations As A Comparison Standard in Measuring Service Quality: Implications for Further Research," Journal of Marketing, 58(Jan), 1, 111-124.

Parasuraman A; Leonard L Berry; Valarie A Zeithaml (1993), "Research Note: More on Improving Quality Measurement, Journal of Retailing. 69(Spring), 1, 140-147.

Berry, Leonard L; A Parasuraman (1993), "Building A New Academic Field - The Case of Services Marketing," Journal of Retailing. 69(Spring), 1, 13-60.

Zeithaml, Valarie A; Leonard L Berry; A Parasuraman (1993), "The Nature And Determinants of Customer Expectations of Service," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21(Winter), 1, 1-12.

Berry, Leonard L; Parasuraman A (1992), "Prescriptions for a Service Quality Revolution in America," Organizational Dynamics. 20(Spring), 4, 5-15.

Parasuraman, A; Leonard L Berry; Valarie-A Zeithaml (1991), "Perceived Service Quality as a Customer-Based Performance Measure: An Empirical Examination of Organizational Barriers Using an Extended Service Quality Model," Human Resource Management, 30(Fall), 3, 335-364.

Parasuraman, A; Leonard L Berry; Valarie A Zeithaml (1991), "Refinement and Reassessment of the SERVQUAL Scale," Journal of Retailing, 67(Winter), 4, 420-450.

Berry-Leonard-L; Conant-Jeffrey-S; Parasuraman-A (1991), "A Framework for Conducting a Services Marketing Audit," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(Summer), 3, 255-268.

Parasuraman-A; Berry-Leonard-L; Zeithaml-Valarie-A (1991), "Understanding Customer Expectations of Service," Sloan Management Review, 32(Spring), 3, 39-48.

Johnston, Mark W; A Parasuraman; Charles M Futrell; William C Black (1990), "A Longitudinal Assessment of the Impact of Selected Organizational Influences on Salespeople's Organizational Commitment During Early Employment," Journal of Marketing Research, 27(Aug), 3, 333-344.

Berry, Leonard L; Valarie A Zeithaml; A Parasuraman (1990), "Five Imperatives for Improving Service Quality," Sloan Management Review, 31(Summer), 4, 29-38.

Hise, Richard T; Larry O' Neal; A Parasuraman; James U McNeal (1990), "Marketing/R&D Interaction in New Product Development: Implications for New Product Success Rates," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 7(Jun), 2, 42-155.

Johnston, Mark W; A Parasuraman; Charles M Futrell (1989), "Extending a Model of Salesperson Role Perceptions and Work-Related Attitudes: Impact of Job Tenure," Journal of Business Research, 18(Jun), 4, 269-290.

Hart, Sandra Hile; William C Moncrief; A Parasuraman (1989), "An Empirical Investigation of Salespeople's Performance, Effort and Selling Method During a Sales Contest," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 17(Winter), 1, 29-39.

Hise, Richard T; Larry O' Neal; James U McNeal; A Parasuraman (1989), "The Effect of Product Design Activities on Commercial Success Levels of New Industrial Products," Journal of Product Innovation Management, 6(Mar), 1, 43-50.

Parasuraman-A; P Varadarajan (1988), "Future Strategic Emphases in Service Versus Goods Businesses," Journal of Services Marketing, 2(Fall), 4, 57-66.

Parasuraman, A; Rajan R Varadarajan (1988), "Robustness of Ordinal Measures of Competitive Strategy Variables Employed in Business Research: A PIMS Data-Based Analysis," Journal of Business Research. 17(Aug), 1, 101-113.

Berry, Leonard L; A Parasuraman; Valarie A Zeithaml (1988), "The Service-Quality Puzzle," Business Horizons, 31(Sep/Oct), 5, 35-43.

Baker, Julie; Leonard L Berry; A Parasuraman (1988), "The Marketing Impact of Branch Facility Design," Journal of Retail Banking, 10(Summer), 2, 33-42.

Zeithaml, Valarie A; Leonard L Berry; Parasuraman-A (1988), "Communication and Control Processes in the Delivery of Service Quality," Journal of Marketing, 52(Apr), 2, 35-48.

*Parasuraman, A; Valarie A Zeithaml; Leonard L Berry (1988), "SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality," Journal of Retailing, 64(Spring), 1, 12-40.

Johnston, Mark W; Charles M Futrell; A Parasuraman; Jeffrey Sager(1988), "Performance and Job Satisfaction Effects on Salesperson Turnover: A Replication and Extension," Journal of Business Research. 16(Jan), 1, 67-83.

Parasuraman, A (1987), "Customer-Oriented Corporate Cultures Are Crucial to Services Marketing Success," Journal of Services Marketing, 1(Summer), 1, 39-46.

Lucas-George-H Jr.; Parasuraman-A; Davis-Robert-A; Enis-Ben-M (1987), "An Empirical Study of Salesforce Turnover," Journal of Marketing, 51(Jul), 3, 34-59.

Varadarajan, P Rajan; A Parasuraman (1987), "The Future of Strategic Market Planning: A Survey of U.S. Firms," Business, 37(Apr/May/Jun), 2, 21-29.

Parasuraman-A; McDaniel-Stephen-W (1986), "Selling Research Services to Small Businesses: Problems and Prospects," Journal of Professional Services Marketing, 1(Summer), 4, 9-17.

McDaniel-Stephen-W; Parasuraman-A (1986), "Practical Guidelines for Small Business Marketing Research," Journal of Small Business Management, 24(Jan), 1, 1-8.

Jackson-Ralph-W; Parasuraman-A (1986), "The Yellow Pages as an Advertising Tool for Small Businesses," American Journal of Small Business. 10(Spring), 4, 29-35.

Deshpande-Rohit; Parasuraman-A (1986), "Linking Corporate Culture to Strategic Planning," Business Horizons, 29(May/Jun), 3, 28-37.

Fry,Louis W; Charles M Futrell; A Parasuraman; Margaret A Chmielewski (1986), "An Analysis of Alternative Causal Models of Salesperson Role Perceptions and Work-Related Attitudes," Journal of Marketing Research. 23(May), 2, 153-163.

McDaniel-Stephen-W; Parasuraman-A (1985), "Small Business Experience with and Attitudes Toward Formal Marketing Research," American Journal of Small Business, 9(Spring), 4, 1-6.

Parasuraman, A; Valarie A Zeithaml; Leonard L Berry (1985), "A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research," Journal of Marketing, 49(Fall), 4, 41-50.

McDaniel, Stephen W; Charles M Futrell ; A Parasuraman (1985), "Social Power Bases of Marketing Executives: The Relationship with Organizational Climate," Journal of Business Research. 13(Feb), 1, 77-85.

Berry, Leonard L; Valerie A Zeithaml; A Parasuraman (1985), "Quality Counts in Services, Too," Business Horizons, 28(May/Jun), 3, 44-52.

Bush-Alan-J; Parasuraman-A (1985), "Mall Intercept Versus Telephone-Interviewing Environment," Journal of Advertising Research, 25(Apr/May), 2, 36-43.

Parasuraman, A; P Varadarajan; Amitava Chattopadhyay; Prakash Nedungadi; Dipankar Chakravarti; Victor-J Jr. Cook, (1985), "More on ''Marketing Strategy and Differential Advantage''/Comment/Response," Journal of Marketing. 49(Spring), 2, 124-142.

Zeithaml-Valarie-A; Parasuraman-A; Berry-Leonard-L (1985), "Problems and Strategies in Services Marketing," Journal of Marketing, 49(Spring), 2, 33-46.

Futrell, Charles M; A Parasuraman (1984), "The Relationship of Satisfaction and Performance to Salesforce Turnover," Journal of Marketing, 48(Fall), 4, 33-40.

Berry, Leonard L; A Parasuraman; Valarie A Zeithaml (1984), "Synchronizing Demand and Supply in Service Businesses," Business, 34(Oct/Nov/Dec), 4, 35-37.

Parasuraman-A (1984), "Developing Customer-Oriented Purchasing Systems," Business Forum, 9(Spring), 2, 24-27.

Hise-Richard-T; Parasuraman-A; Viswanathan-Ramaswamy (1984), "Product Elimination: The Neglected Management Responsibility," Journal of Business Strategy, 4(Spring), 4, 56-63.

Parasuraman A; Michael R Bowers (1983), "Purchasing Professionals' Propensity to Leave the Purchasing Field," Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, 19(Fall), 3, 22-26.

Parasuraman A; Leonard L Berry; Valarie A Zeithaml (1983), "Service Firms Need Marketing Skills," Business Horizons, 26(Nov/Dec), 6, 28-31.

Parasuraman, A (1983), ''ĎDebranding? A Product Strategy with Profit Potential," Journal of Business Strategy, 4(Summer), 1, 82-87.

Parasuraman, A (1983), "Marketing-Orientation of Industrial vs. Consumer Goods Firms," Akron Business and Economic Review, 14(Summer), 2, 41-44.

Futrell-Charles; A Parasuraman; Jeffrey Sager (1983), "Sales Force Evaluation with Expectancy Theory," Industrial Marketing Management, 12(Apr), 2, 125-129.

Parasuraman-A; Futrell-Charles-M (1983), "Demographics, Job Satisfaction, and Propensity to Leave of Industrial Salesmen," Journal of Business Research, 11(Mar), 1, 33-48.

Parasuraman, A (1983), "Research's Place in the Marketing Budget," Business Horizons, 26(Marpr), 2, 25-29.

Parasuraman, A; Linda-M Zeren (1983), "R&D's Relationship with Profits and Sales," Research Management. 26(Janeb), 1, 25-28.

Parasuraman, A (1982), "A Study of Techniques Used and Clients Served by Marketing Research Firms," European Research, 10(Oct), 4, 177-185.

Parasuraman, A (1982), "The Marketing Concept Can Aid, Not Erode, Business Efficiency," Business Forum. 7(Fall), 4, 16-18.

Parasuraman, A (1982), "More on the Prediction of Mail Survey Response Rates," Journal of Marketing Research, 19(May), 2, 261-268.

Parasuraman, A (1982), "An Approach for Allocating Sales Call Effort," Industrial Marketing Management, 11(Feb), 1, 75-79.

Parasuraman, A (1981), "Role Clarity and Job Satisfaction in Purchasing," Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, 17(Fall), 3, 2-7.

Lawton, Leigh; A Parasuraman (1981), "The Role of R & D and Marketing Research in New Product Development," Akron Business and Economic Review, 12(Winter), 4, 17-20.

Parasuraman, A (1981), "The Relative Importance of Industrial Promotion Tools," Industrial Marketing Management, 10(Oct), 4, 277-281.

Parasuraman, A (1981), "Hang On to the Marketing Concept!" Business Horizons, 24(Sep/Oct), 5, 38-40.

Parasuraman, A (1981), "Use of Computers in Purchasing: An Empirical Study," Journal of Purchasing and Materials Management, 17(Spring), 1, 10-14.

Parasuraman, A (1981), "Characteristics of Firms with and Without Formal Vendor Evaluation Systems: Implications for Institutional Buyers and Sellers," Akron Business and Economic Review, 12(Spring), 1, 30-34.

Lawton, Leigh; A Parasuraman (1980), "So You Want Your New Product Planning To Be Productive," Business Horizons. 23(Dec), 6, 29-34.

Lawton, Leigh; A Parasuraman (1980), "The Impact of the Marketing Concept on New Product Planning," Journal of Marketing, 44(Winter), 1, 19-25.

Parasuraman, A (1980), "Vendor Segmentation: An Additional Level of Market Segmentation," Industrial Marketing Management, 9(Feb), 1, 59-62.

Parasuraman, A (1979), "Social Acceptance of Children's Commercials on Television: Some Suggestions for Marketers," Baylor Business Studies, Nov/Dec 1979/Jan 1980; 10, 4, 29-39.

Parasuraman, A (1978), "Marketing Research by a Small Industrial Firm: A Case Study," Industrial Marketing Management, 7(Aug), 4, 238-242.

Parasuraman, A and Ralph L Day (1978), "A Management Oriented Model For Allocating Sales Effort," Journal of Marketing Research, 14( Feb), 1, 22-23.

Parasuraman, A (1975), "Assigning Salesmen To Sales Territories - Some Practical Guidelines," Industrial Marketing Management, 4(Dec), 6, 335-341.

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